A Comprehensive Guide to Pathology Equipments

Introduction:

Pathology equipments are mostly employed in hospitals and laboratories since it has several clinical, educational, and research uses. They are primarily used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including infectious infections. Health-care providers are updating their laboratories with new pathology equipments that will let them give full-fledged support during the diagnostic procedure. 

Although pathology equipments manufacturing and design is not a highly complex procedure, it does include many steps which are finalized with suitable specifications. Innovations and the ability to increase the typical capabilities of current equipment are some of the most recent advances in this industry.

Guide for common Pathology Equipments:

  1. Flow cytometer

Modern flow cytometers can assess hundreds of particles per second in “real-time,” and may actively separate and isolate particles with defined optical features at comparable speeds if equipped as cell sorters. A flow cytometer is comparable to a microscope, except instead of creating a picture of the cel. These pathology equipments provide high-throughput, automated quantification of specified optical characteristics on a cell-by-cell basis.

  1. Tissue bath or organ bath or Dale’s apparatus

An organ chamber, also known as an organ bath or isolated tissue bath, is a room in which isolated organs or tissues can be drugged or electrically stimulated to assess their function. The tissue in the organ bath is usually carbogen-oxygenated and preserved in a solution like Tyrode’s solution or lactated Ringer’s solution. [requires citation] They’ve also been referred to as gut baths in the past.

  1. Sahli Haemoglobinometer

A hemoglobinometer is a device that uses spectrophotometric measurement to quantify the hemoglobin content of the blood. Portable hemoglobinometers make measuring simple and convenient, which is especially beneficial in locations where clinical laboratories are not readily available.

  1. Haemocytometer

A precise volume chamber is created by indenting a thick glass microscope slide with a rectangular depression. A laser-etched grid of perpendicular lines has been carved into this chamber. The gadget is designed in such a way that the region limited by the lines and the depth of the chamber are both known.

  1. Westergren’s tube and ESR stand

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which anticoagulated whole blood red blood cells fall in a standardized tube over a one-hour period. It’s a popular hematological test that measures inflammation in a non-specific way. Anticoagulated blood is placed in an upright tube, known as a Westergren tube, and the distance that red blood cells fall is measured and reported in millimeters at the end of one hour.

  1. Disposable plastic molds or embedding molds (Leukart’s L blocks) for tissue paraffin block making 

Disposable base molds are convenient and easy to use. It’s cheap enough to throw away after usage, yet durable enough to reuse. They have a smooth inside surface and rounded edges to enable specimen removal and provide optimum heat exchange.

  1. Block holders 

When a patient gets a biopsy or surgery, the surgeon may frequently take diseased tissue for pathology evaluation at the hospital. A “tissue block” is the term for the tissue. The tissue block will be sliced into extremely thin layers, which will be put on a glass slide and viewed under a microscope by the pathologist.

  1. Refrigerated microtome (cryostat)

In medicine, cryostats are used to cut histology slides. They’re most commonly utilized in a method known as frozen section histology (see Frozen section procedure). The cryostat is essentially a freezer-based ultrafine “deli-slicer” known as a microtome.

  1. Ultramicrotome

Histotechnologists cut small slices of tissue contained in the wax block with specialized equipment called a microtome. These portions are cut one by one to make a ribbon, which is then floated in warm water to soften and flatten it.

  1. Tissue section floating baths 

The Paraffin Section Flotation Bath is used in histology and pathology laboratories to help with the processing of paraffin wax samples. It’s just a hot distilled water floating out bath that enables precise segment manipulation and placement on glass slides.

  1. Ryle’s tube or nasogastric tube

A nasogastric tube is an equipment used to feed as well as provide medications and other oral treatments like activated charcoal. A syringe is used for injecting medications and small amounts of liquid into the tube. A gravity-based system is used for continuous feeding, with the solution placed higher than the patient’s stomach. If the feeding requires further supervision, the tube is frequently attached to an electronic pump that can manage and quantify the patient’s intake as well as alert any feeding interruptions.

  1. FNAC needles

The method of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is performed to examine lumps or tumors. A thin (23–25 gauge (0.52 to 0.64 mm outer diameter) hollow needle is introduced into the mass for the cell sample, which is then stained and inspected under a microscope (biopsy).

  1. Spirometer

A spirometer is a pathology equipment detects the amount of air that is inhaled and exhaled by the lungs. Obstructive and restrictive aberrant ventilation patterns will be identified using the spirogram. Spirometers come in a variety of styles and employ a variety of measuring methods (pressure transducers, ultrasonic, water gauge).

  1. Peak flow meter or peak expiratory flow rate meter

The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also known as the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), is a person’s maximal rate of expiration as measured by a peak flow meter, a compact, hand-held instrument that measures a person’s capacity to exhale air. It determines the amount of airflow across the bronchi and consequently the degree of airway blockage. Typically, peak expiratory flow is measured in liters per minute (L/min).

  1. Electrocardiogram

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a quick procedures for assessing the heart. Electrodes (tiny, skin-sticking plastic patches) are applied to specific areas of the chest, arms, and legs. 

  1. Urinometer

The specific gravity of urine was measured using a urinometer, which is a sort of hydrometer. The quantity, density, and weight of the solute particles present in the urine are used to calculate specific gravity,’ which is a measure of the kidney’s concentrating capacity.

  1. Eibach’s Albuminometer

A device for determining the quantity of albumin or other soluble protein in a liquid (particularly urine) by detecting the polarization of transmitted light or, subsequently, by forming a precipitate in a graduated glass tube.

Conclusion

Pathology equipments are becoming a vital medical tool for diagnosing numerous illnesses as technology advances. It is extensively used in medical education, diagnostics, and laboratory settings. 

Pathology equipments key distinction from conventional laboratory equipment is its unique ability to employ biological materials for diagnostic or research objectives, as well as infection control and disinfection. Blood centrifuges, microscopes, molecular biology procedures, surgical pathology, tissue processing, biopsy instruments, biosensors, and lab automation systems are all included in this area.