Forrest Butt

  • Funding informationThis study was supported by a Grant from the Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA) [CANCER RESEARCH GRANT: 2011 JSP]. ALW and JSP receive funding through the SAMRC Gynaecological Cancer Research Centre, based at the University of Cape Town. JSP, LJL, SLB and LM received training in the USA as part of the Columbia…[Read more]

  • Our challenge study did differ from the office international des epizooties (OIE) standard challenge procedure. Here, pigs received an intramuscular injection with 2ml (100 BID50) of virus in the neck region, rather than intradermal injection into the heel bulbs of one foot with 10000 TCID50 virus in a 0.2ml volume. Although the T7-GH vaccine…[Read more]

  • In adults, EPO is mainly produced in the kidneys. It binds to the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and activates JAK-STAT-signalling (Noguchi et al., 2008). EPO-R is expressed predominately on erythrocyte progenitors and EPO can be used therapeutically in humans and animals to treat anaemia (Eschbach and Adamson, 1985). Human cancer patients with…[Read more]

  • Afghan conflict has typically seen the movement of migrants to neighbouring Iran and Pakistan. And, those who have resources and education seek refuge in Western countries. A fraternity also brings in many Afghans to India. But, Central Asia is also appearing as an important destination for many Afghans. They are comfortable there because of less…[Read more]

  • Materials and methodsResultsDiscussionIn keeping with these observations, fk 506 infected with Dk/77 and Sw/79 shared similar patterns of viral shedding, as both challenged and sentinel birds shed viable virus via both the tracheal and cloacal routes. On the other hand, challenged and sentinel birds of the Sw/Eng/92 group shed viable virus…[Read more]

  • The current study suggests that quail may pose more of a transmission threat and subsequent public health threats as compared to chickens. Although both quail and pigeons were in cages located directly under the chickens in stack 1 (which housed one shedding chicken), only the quail shed virus and produced serologic responses. This suggests that…[Read more]

  • Materials and methodsResultsDiscussionSince the discovery of PRRSV in 1991, the molecular evolution of the virus has continuously occurred, leading to the rapid emergence or re-emergence and spread of genetic, antigenic, and virulent variants worldwide. Notwithstanding tremendous exertion in PRRS disease control, this notorious virus has…[Read more]

  • Forrest Butt posted an update 2 weeks ago

    Materials and methodsResultsFigs. 2 and 3 present strongyle and ascarid egg count data plotted against foal age and sample month, respectively. Ascarid egg counts were significantly associated with both age (=0.0125) and sample month (=0.0016). In addition, fillies had significantly higher ascarid egg counts than colts (=0.0247). Table 1 presents…[Read more]

  • Forrest Butt posted an update 2 weeks ago

    Here we propose and demonstrate a FT-CARS spectroscopy technique that achieves a record-high spectral acquisition rate of 50,000 spectra/s over a Raman spectral region of 200–1430cm−1 with a spectral ursolic acid of 4.2cm−1. The enabling component of the technique is a Fourier-domain delay line consisting of a grating-based 4f pulse shaper combi…[Read more]

  • As part of an integrated control programme in the event of an outbreak of AHS, it is of utmost importance to prevent, or substantially reduce, contact between horses and Culicoides. Stabling of equids at night, meshing of stables, the use of fans and application of insect repellents or insecticides both to the animal and the stable environment…[Read more]

  • A suprachoroidal slow-release CsA implant was subsequently developed (Gilger et al., 2006). Long-term studies following implantation of these suprachoroidal implants in horses have shown a reduction in the number and severity of uveitis episodes with minimal complications, making them a promising alternative (Gilger et al., 2010; Hermans and E…[Read more]

  • We therefore used metagenomic sequencing to identify viruses infecting wild An. gambiae, An. funestus, and An. rufipes mosquitoes in West Africa. We sampled adult mosquitoes from villages in rural Burkina Faso, Liberia, and Senegal, sequenced RNA, and searched datasets for virus sequences. We identified sequences from multiple new viruses. For…[Read more]

  • A remarkable finding was the presence of CD3+ intraepithelial globule leukocytes (GLs) in high amount in some parasitized cattle. This result supports a lymphocytic origin for GLs in cattle in agreement with previous studies in cats (Konno et al., 1994; Roccabianca et al., 2006). The presence of CD79 αcy+ B lymphocytes and IgG plasma cells…[Read more]

  • The nuclear localization of purchase O4I1 may be due, in part, to host heat shock genes that are rapidly upregulated by 6 hpi, and are important for DNA replication and baculovirus production (Salem et al., 2011; Lyupina et al., 2010). Heat shock is well known to promote nuclear translocation of actin (Iida et al. 1986; Johnson et al.,…[Read more]

  • Chemical therapeutants commonly used to treat gyrodactylid infections pose associated problems such as low efficacy, host toxicity and environmental and human health concerns (see review by Schelkle et al., 2009). In addition, antihelminthic-resistant strains of NSC59984 can develop (Schmahl et al., 1989). In recent years a need has been…[Read more]

  • It has been shown that the presence of complete LPS is not essential for in vitro invasion or for triggering acute colitis in mice (Ilg et al., 2009). The authors constructed an O-antigen-deficient serovar S. Typhimurium strain through the orexin agonist cost of the wbaP gene and used the strain for oral inoculation of mice. The lack of O-antigen…[Read more]

  • Another underexplored area that deserves attention is the cellular biology of DENV-infected salivary glands. DENV tropism within mosquito salivary glands is heterogeneous (Linthicum et al., 1996; Raquin et al., 2012; Salazar et al., 2007) potentially due to the distribution of putative salivary gland receptors (Cao-Lormeau, 2009). Ultra structural…[Read more]

  • ConclusionsAccording to the transitional discourse, parental informal payments are a product of the Soviet legacy destined to disappear. The introduction of mechanisms to formalize the co-financing and commodification of public education has been justified as a means of providing greater transparency in the raising of revenues and their…[Read more]

  • Forrest Butt posted an update 1 month ago

    Large nursery pens and few pens in the fattening room significantly shorten the age-time to first antibody detection after maternal leptomycin b fade out. It should be noted that the pen number was negatively correlated with the pen size in our dataset, i.e. a small number of pens was associated with large pens (data not shown). The protective…[Read more]

  • Forrest Butt posted an update 1 month ago

    These results and the broad literature cited above show that various virus-host combinations may likely behave quite differently in the context of silencing during the time course of infection. The chosen N. benthamiana, moreover, is a special case because the worldwide used experimental plant line carries an inactivated RDR1 gene (Wylie et al.,…[Read more]

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